Bird stamps from Czech Republic.

The Czech Republic is a landlocked country in Central Europe. The country is bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the north. Its capital and largest city, with 1.3 million inhabitants, is Prague. The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Moravia and a small part of Silesia. The Czech state, formerly known as Bohemia, was formed in the late 9th century as a small duchy around Prague, at that time under the dominance of the powerful Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power was transferred from Moravia to Bohemia, under the Přemyslids. Since 1002 it was formally recognized as part of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1212 the duchy was raised to a kingdom and during the rule of Přemyslid dukes/kings and their successors, the Luxembourgs, the country reached its greatest territorial extent (13th–14th century).

During the Hussite wars the kingdom faced economic embargoes and crusades from all over Europe. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the Kingdom of Bohemia was gradually integrated into the Habsburg monarchy as one of its three principal parts, alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary. The Bohemian Revolt (1618–20) lost in the Battle of White Mountain, led to Thirty Years War and further centralization of the monarchy including forced recatholization and Germanization. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian kingdom became part of the Austrian Empire. In the 19th century the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia which was formed in 1918, following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I.

After 1933, Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in central and eastern Europe. After the Munich Agreement, Polish annexation of Zaolzie and German occupation of Czechoslovakia and the consequent disillusion with the Western response and gratitude for the liberation of the major portion of Czechoslovakia by the Red Army, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the majority in the 1946 elections. In the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a communist-ruled state. In 1968, the increasing dissatisfaction culminated in attempts to reform the communist regime.

The events, known as the Prague Spring of 1968, ended with an invasion by the armies of the Warsaw Pact countries (with the exception of Romania); the troops remained in the country until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved into its constituent states, the Czech Republic and the Slovak Republic. In 2006, the Czech Republic became first former member of the Comecon to achieve the status of a developed country according to the World Bank. In addition, the country has the highest human development in Central and Eastern Europe, ranking as a "Very High Human Development" nation. It is also ranked as the third most peaceful country in Europe and most democratic and healthy (by infant mortality) country in the region. It is a pluralist multi-party parliamentary representative democracy, a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the OSCE, the Council of Europe and the Visegrád Group

Cyprus is a major tourist destination in the Mediterranean. An advanced, high-income economy with a very high Human Development Index, the Republic of Cyprus was a founding member of the Non-Aligned Movement until it joined the European Union on 1 May 2004.

Face value | Family number | English name | Scientific name
1994.01   24.08.1994   Birds      
European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus Bluethroat Luscinia svecica
3k     216     European Stonechat    Saxicola rubicola     
5k     229     Common Rosefinch    Carpodacus erythrinus     
14k     216     Bluethroat    Luscinia svecica     

1994.02   24.08.1994   Birds   Booklet   1994.01
European Stonechat Saxicola rubicola
3k     216     European Stonechat    Saxicola rubicola     

1994.03   24.08.1994   Birds   Booklet   1994.01
Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrinus
5k     229     Common Rosefinch    Carpodacus erythrinus     

1998.01   23.04.1998   Nature conservation   4v set   
Grey Partridge Perdix perdix Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix
4.60k     11     Grey Partridge    Perdix perdix     
4.60k     11     Black Grouse    Lyrurus tetrix     

1998.02   23.04.1998   Nature conservation   Booklet, 3 Partridge + 2 Grouse   1998.01
Grey Partridge Perdix perdix Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix
4.60k     11     Grey Partridge    Perdix perdix     
4.60k     11     Black Grouse    Lyrurus tetrix     

1998.03   23.04.1998   Nature conservation   Booklet, 2 Partridge + 3 Grouse   1998.01
Grey Partridge Perdix perdix Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix
4.60k     11     Grey Partridge    Perdix perdix     
4.60k     11     Black Grouse    Lyrurus tetrix     

1999.01   10.03.1999   Protected fauna   4v set   
European Bee-eater Merops apiaster Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops
4.60k     95     European Bee-eater    Merops apiaster     
4.60k     96     Eurasian Hoopoe    Upupa epops     

1999.02   10.03.1999   Protected fauna   Booklet   1999.01
European Bee-eater Merops apiaster Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops
4.60k     95     European Bee-eater    Merops apiaster     
4.60k     96     Eurasian Hoopoe    Upupa epops     

2000.01   04.10.2000   Hunting and gamekeeping   4v set   
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
5k     37     Northern Goshawk    Accipiter gentilis     
and     11     Common Pheasant    Phasianus colchicus     
5.40k     14     Mallard    Anas platyrhynchos     

2000.02   04.10.2000   Hunting and gamekeeping   Booklet   2000.01
Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
5k     37     Northern Goshawk    Accipiter gentilis     
and     11     Common Pheasant    Phasianus colchicus     

2000.03   04.10.2000   Hunting and gamekeeping   Booklet   2000.01
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos
5.40k     14     Mallard    Anas platyrhynchos     

2003.01   15.10.2003   Nature conservation      
Red Kite Milvus milvus Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus
6.50k     37     Red Kite    Milvus milvus     
8k     38     Peregrine Falcon    Falco peregrinus     
9k     37     Booted Eagle    Hieraaetus pennatus     

2003.02   15.10.2003   Nature conservation   Booklet   2003.01
Red Kite Milvus milvus
6.50k     37     Red Kite    Milvus milvus     

2003.03   15.10.2003   Nature conservation   Booklet   2003.01
Peregrine Falcon Falco peregrinus
8k     38     Peregrine Falcon    Falco peregrinus     

2003.04   15.10.2003   Nature conservation   Booklet   2003.01
Booted Eagle Hieraaetus pennatus
9k     37     Booted Eagle    Hieraaetus pennatus     

2004.01   08.09.2004   Parrots   Sheet   
Budgerigar Melopsittacus undulatus Yellow-collared Lovebird Agapornis personatus Rose-ringed Parakeet Psittacula krameri Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus
12k     73     Budgerigar    Melopsittacus undulatus     
14k     73     Yellow-collared Lovebird    Agapornis personatus     
16k     73     Rose-ringed Parakeet    Psittacula krameri     
20k     73     Red-and-green Macaw    Ara chloropterus     

2005.01   26.01.2005   Portal with peacock      
Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus
7.50k     11     Indian Peafowl    Pavo cristatus     

2005.02   22.06.2005   Krkonose national park   4v sheet   
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica White-throated Dipper Cinclus cinclus
14k     217     White-throated Dipper    Cinclus cinclus     
22k     216     Bluethroat    Luscinia svecica     

2006.01   11.10.2006   Christmas      
Red Crossbill Loxia curvirostra
7.50k     229     Red Crossbill    Loxia curvirostra     

2007.01   05.09.2007   Flora and fauna of the Carpathians   4v sheet   
European Roller Coracias garrulus
12k     90     European Roller    Coracias garrulus     

2008.01   30.01.2008   Portal with peacock      2005.01
Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus
10k     11     Indian Peafowl    Pavo cristatus     

2008.02   28.05.2008   Trebonsko fauna   4v sheet   
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla Red-crested Pochard Netta rufina
10k     92     Common Kingfisher    Alcedo atthis     
14k     37     White-tailed Eagle    Haliaeetus albicilla     
and     14     Greylag Goose    Anser anser     
18k     14     Red-crested Pochard    Netta rufina     

2009.01   11.02.2009   Preserve the polar regions and glaciers      
Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri
35k     16     Emperor Penguin    Aptenodytes forsteri     MS

2009.02   02.09.2009   Krivoklatsko biosphere reserve   4v sheet   
Eurasian Eagle-Owl Bubo bubo Western Barn Owl Tyto alba
14k     78     Eurasian Eagle-Owl    Bubo bubo     
and     24     Black Stork    Ciconia nigra     
17k     77     Western Barn Owl    Tyto alba     

2010.01   01.09.2010   Dolni Morava fauna   4v sheet   
Wallcreeper Tichodroma muraria Eurasian Hoopoe Upupa epops
10k     210     Wallcreeper    Tichodroma muraria     
18k     96     Eurasian Hoopoe    Upupa epops     

2010.02   10.11.2010   Works of art   3v set   
Mute Swan Cygnus olor
30k     14     Mute Swan    Cygnus olor     

2011.01   31.08.2011   Sumava national park   4v sheet   

Click on thumbnail to launch image in popup
Ring Ouzel  Turdus torquatus Black Grouse  Lyrurus tetrix Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker  Picoides tridactylus
10k     215     Ring Ouzel    Turdus torquatus     
and     11     Western Capercaillie    Tetrao urogallus     
18k     11     Black Grouse    Lyrurus tetrix     
20k     108     Eurasian Three-toed Woodpecker    Picoides tridactylus     

2011.02   05.10.2011   Film posters   2v set   
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos
10k     37     Golden Eagle    Aquila chrysaetos     

2011.03   27.10.2011   Portal with peacock      2005.01
Indian Peafowl Pavo cristatus
A     11     Indian Peafowl    Pavo cristatus     
 
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