Bird stamps from Brazil.

Brazil is the largest country in South America. It is the world's fifth largest country, both by geographical area and by population with over 192 million people. It is the only Portuguese-speaking country in the Americas and the largest lusophone country in the world.

Bounded by the Atlantic Ocean on the east, Brazil has a coastline of 7,491 km (4,655 mi). It is bordered on the north by Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname and the French overseas region of French Guiana; on the northwest by Colombia; on the west by Bolivia and Peru; on the southwest by Argentina and Paraguay and on the south by Uruguay.

Numerous archipelagos form part of Brazilian territory, such as Fernando de Noronha, Rocas Atoll, Saint Peter and Paul Rocks, and Trindade and Martim Vaz. It borders all other South American countries except Ecuador and Chile.

Brazil was a colony of Portugal from the landing of Pedro Álvares Cabral in 1500 until 1815, when it was elevated to the rank of kingdom and the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves was formed. The colonial bond was in fact broken in 1808, when the capital of the Portuguese colonial empire was transferred from Lisbon to Rio de Janeiro, after Napoleon invaded Portugal. Independence was achieved in 1822 with the formation of the Empire of Brazil, a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system.

The country became a presidential republic in 1889, when a military coup d'état proclaimed the Republic, although the bicameral legislature, now called Congress, dates back to the ratification of the first constitution in 1824. Its current Constitution, formulated in 1988, defines Brazil as a Federal Republic. The Federation is formed by the union of the Federal District, the 26 States, and the 5,564 Municipalities

The Brazilian economy is the world's sixth largest by nominal GDP and the seventh largest by purchasing power parity (as of 2011). Brazil is one of the world's fastest growing major economies. Economic reforms have given the country new international recognition. Brazil is a founding member of the United Nations, the G20, CPLP, Latin Union, the Organization of Ibero-American States, the Organization of American States, Mercosul and the Union of South American Nations, and is one of the BRIC countries. Brazil is also one of the 17 Megadiverse countries, home to diverse wildlife, natural environments, and extensive natural resources in a variety of protected habitats.

  Face value | Family number | English name | Scientific name

1968.01   30.05.1968   150th anniversary of national museum      

Harpy Eagle Harpia harpyja
20c     37     Harpy Eagle    Harpia harpyja     

1968.02   19.07.1968   Birds      
Musician Wren Cyphorhinus arada
20c     203     Musician Wren    Cyphorhinus arada     

1968.03   02.08.1968   Birds      
Atlantic Royal Flycatcher Onychorhynchus swainsoni
50c     122     Atlantic Royal Flycatcher    Onychorhynchus swainsoni     

1969.01   20.08.1969   Birds      
Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata
10c     230     Red-crested Cardinal    Paroaria coronata     

1973.01   27.05.1973   Tropical birds and plants      
Blue Manakin Chiroxiphia caudata
20c     121     Blue Manakin    Chiroxiphia caudata     

1973.02   16.06.1973   Tropical birds and plants      
Campo Troupial Icterus jamacaii
20c     228     Campo Troupial    Icterus jamacaii     

1973.03   19.06.1973   Tropical birds and plants      
Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda
20c     86     Brazilian Ruby    Clytolaema rubricauda     

1973.04   28.12.1973   Brazilian flora and fauna   4v set   
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber Scarlet Macaw Ara macao Greater Rhea Rhea americana
40c     25     Scarlet Ibis    Eudocimus ruber     
1cr     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     
2cr     3     Greater Rhea    Rhea americana     

1978.01   05.06.1978   Birds      
Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola Banded Cotinga Cotinga maculata Seven-colored Tanager Tangara fastuosa
7.50cr     231     Saffron Finch    Sicalis flaveola     
8.50cr     120     Banded Cotinga    Cotinga maculata     
9.50cr     231     Seven-colored Tanager    Tangara fastuosa     

1980.01   18.10.1980   Lubrapex 80      
Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis Vinaceous-breasted Amazon Amazona vinacea Brown-backed Parrotlet Touit melanonotus Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona pretrei
5cr     73     Red-tailed Amazon    Amazona brasiliensis     
5cr     73     Vinaceous-breasted Amazon    Amazona vinacea     
28cr     73     Brown-backed Parrotlet    Touit melanonotus     
28cr     73     Red-spectacled Amazon    Amazona pretrei     

1981.01   22.05.1981   Hummingbirds      
Planalto Hermit Phaethornis pretrei Ruby-topaz Hummingbird Chrysolampis mosquitus Frilled Coquette Lophornis magnificus Horned Sungem Heliactin bilophus
7cr     86     Planalto Hermit    Phaethornis pretrei     
7cr     86     Ruby-topaz Hummingbird    Chrysolampis mosquitus     
7cr     86     Frilled Coquette    Lophornis magnificus     
7cr     86     Horned Sungem    Heliactin bilophus     

1983.01   20.02.1983   First Brazilian Antarctic expedition      
Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae
150cr     16     Adelie Penguin    Pygoscelis adeliae     

1983.02   21.05.1983   Toucans      
Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco White-throated Toucan Ramphastos tucanus Green-billed Toucan Ramphastos dicolorus Channel-billed Toucan Ramphastos vitellinus
30cr     104     Toco Toucan    Ramphastos toco     
185cr     104     White-throated Toucan    Ramphastos tucanus     
205cr     104     Green-billed Toucan    Ramphastos dicolorus     
215cr     104     Channel-billed Toucan    Ramphastos vitellinus     

1984.01   20.01.1984   Gilberto Freyre      
Tui Parakeet Brotogeris sanctithomae
45cr     73     Tui Parakeet    Brotogeris sanctithomae     

1984.02   05.06.1984   Mato Grosso   Strip   
Great Egret Ardea alba Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Jabiru Jabiru mycteria
65cr     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     
65cr     25     Roseate Spoonbill    Platalea ajaja     
80cr     24     Jabiru    Jabiru mycteria     
and     230     Red-cowled Cardinal    Paroaria dominicana     

1984.03   08.06.1984   Postal Union of the Americas and Spain      
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao
65cr     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     
and     0     Glaucous Macaw    Anodorhynchus glaucus     

1984.04   09.07.1984   Marajo Island water buffaloes   3v strip   
Wood Stork Mycteria americana Wood Stork Mycteria americana
65cr     24     Wood Stork    Mycteria americana     
and     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     
65cr     24     Wood Stork    Mycteria americana     
and     25     Roseate Spoonbill    Platalea ajaja     

1984.05   03.12.1984   Christmas   4v set   
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao
120cr     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     

1985.01   05.06.1985   Abrolhos national park      
Magnificent Frigatebird Fregata magnificens Masked Booby Sula dactylatra Brown Noddy Anous stolidus Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola
220cr     30     Magnificent Frigatebird    Fregata magnificens     
and     31     Masked Booby    Sula dactylatra     
220cr     31     Masked Booby    Sula dactylatra     
and     23     Red-billed Tropicbird    Phaethon aethereus     
220cr     66     Brown Noddy    Anous stolidus     
2000cr     58     Grey Plover    Pluvialis squatarola     

1986.01   10.11.1986   Christmas      
Luzon Bleeding-heart Gallicolumba luzonica European Bee-eater Merops apiaster Not identified Not identified
50c     70     Luzon Bleeding-heart    Gallicolumba luzonica     
and     214     Blue-winged Leafbird    Chloropsis cochinchinensis     
6.50cz     95     European Bee-eater    Merops apiaster     
and     177     European Crested Tit    Lophophanes cristatus     
and     38     Northern Crested Caracara    Caracara cheriway     
7.30cz          Not identified    Not identified     

1987.01   05.03.1987   Heitor Villa-Lobos      
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao
1.50cz     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     

1987.02   09.03.1987   Brazilian Antarctic programme      
Adelie Penguin Pygoscelis adeliae
1cz     16     Adelie Penguin    Pygoscelis adeliae     

1987.03   04.08.1987   National tourism year   2v set   
Coconut Lorikeet Trichoglossus haematodus
3cz     73     Coconut Lorikeet    Trichoglossus haematodus     

1987.04   21.12.1987   Gabriel Soares de Sousa      
Greater Rhea Rhea americana
7cz     3     Greater Rhea    Rhea americana     
and     26     Cocoi Heron    Ardea cocoi     

1988.01   10.12.1988   Brapex VII   3v sheet   
Red-tailed Amazon Amazona brasiliensis Great Egret Ardea alba
100cz     73     Red-tailed Amazon    Amazona brasiliensis     
400cz     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     

1990.01   22.02.1990   Brazilian Antarctic programme      
Chinstrap Penguin Pygoscelis antarcticus
20cz     16     Chinstrap Penguin    Pygoscelis antarcticus     MS

1991.01   20.02.1991   Visit of president Collor to Antarctica      
Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri
300cr     16     Emperor Penguin    Aptenodytes forsteri     
and     16     Chinstrap Penguin    Pygoscelis antarcticus     

1991.02   05.06.1991   United Nations conference on environment      
Orinoco Goose Neochen jubata
45cr     14     Orinoco Goose    Neochen jubata     

1991.03   13.10.1991   Brapex VIII      
White-vented Violetear Colibri serrirostris Glittering-bellied Emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda
50cr     86     White-vented Violetear    Colibri serrirostris     
65cr     86     Glittering-bellied Emerald    Chlorostilbon lucidus     
65cr     86     Brazilian Ruby    Clytolaema rubricauda     

1991.04   13.10.1991   Brapex VIII   Sheet   
White-vented Violetear Colibri serrirostris Glittering-bellied Emerald Chlorostilbon lucidus Brazilian Ruby Clytolaema rubricauda
50cr     86     White-vented Violetear    Colibri serrirostris     
50cr     86     Glittering-bellied Emerald    Chlorostilbon lucidus     
500cr     86     Brazilian Ruby    Clytolaema rubricauda     

1992.01   25.02.1992   2nd United Nations conference on environment   2v set   
White-tailed Tropicbird Phaethon lepturus
400cr     23     White-tailed Tropicbird    Phaethon lepturus     

1992.02   20.03.1992   Arbrafex 92   4v set   
Lesser Rhea Rhea pennata
250cr     3     Lesser Rhea    Rhea pennata     

1992.03   20.03.1992   Arbrafex 92   4v sheet   1992.02
Lesser Rhea Rhea pennata
500cr     3     Lesser Rhea    Rhea pennata     

1992.04   17.07.1992   Capivara national park   2v strip   
Small-billed Tinamou Crypturellus parvirostris
550cr     1     Small-billed Tinamou    Crypturellus parvirostris     

1993.01   13.10.1993   America      
Lear's Macaw Anodorhynchus leari Spix's Macaw Cyanopsitta spixii
22cr     73     Lear's Macaw    Anodorhynchus leari     
and     0     Glaucous Macaw    Anodorhynchus glaucus     
and     73     Hyacinth Macaw    Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus     
130cr     73     Spix's Macaw    Cyanopsitta spixii     

1994.01   01.03.1994   Birds      
Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris
50cr     211     Rufous-bellied Thrush    Turdus rufiventris     

1994.02   09.03.1994   Birds      
Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris
20cr     37     Roadside Hawk    Buteo magnirostris     

1994.03   17.03.1994   Birds      
Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca
10cr     183     Blue-and-white Swallow    Notiochelidon cyanoleuca     

1994.04   04.04.1994   Birds      
Ruddy Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti
100cr     70     Ruddy Ground Dove    Columbina talpacoti     

1994.05   13.04.1994   Birds      
Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis
500cr     230     Rufous-collared Sparrow    Zonotrichia capensis     

1994.06   27.04.1994   Birds      
Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis
200cr     58     Southern Lapwing    Vanellus chilensis     

1994.07   01.07.1994   Birds      1994.01-06
Blue-and-white Swallow Notiochelidon cyanoleuca Roadside Hawk Buteo magnirostris Rufous-bellied Thrush Turdus rufiventris Ruddy Ground Dove Columbina talpacoti Southern Lapwing Vanellus chilensis Rufous-collared Sparrow Zonotrichia capensis Rufous Hornero Furnarius rufus
1c     183     Blue-and-white Swallow    Notiochelidon cyanoleuca     
2c     37     Roadside Hawk    Buteo magnirostris     
5c     211     Rufous-bellied Thrush    Turdus rufiventris     
10c     70     Ruddy Ground Dove    Columbina talpacoti     
20c     58     Southern Lapwing    Vanellus chilensis     
50c     230     Rufous-collared Sparrow    Zonotrichia capensis     
1r     112     Rufous Hornero    Furnarius rufus     New

1994.08   26.08.1994   Sao Paulo maternity hospital      
White Stork Ciconia ciconia
12c     24     White Stork    Ciconia ciconia     

1995.01   05.06.1995   Preservation of fauna      
Solitary Tinamou Tinamus solitarius Alagoas Curassow Mitu mitu
12c     1     Solitary Tinamou    Tinamus solitarius     
12c     8     Alagoas Curassow    Mitu mitu     

1995.02   28.09.1995   Lighthouses   3v set   
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber
15c     25     Scarlet Ibis    Eudocimus ruber     

1995.03   30.09.1995   Lubrapex 95      
White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi Great Egret Ardea alba
15c     25     White-faced Ibis    Plegadis chihi     
84c     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     
and     12     Horned Screamer    Anhima cornuta     

1995.04   30.09.1995   Lubrapex 95 (Rio Tiete)   Sheet   1995.03
White-faced Ibis Plegadis chihi Great Egret Ardea alba
1.50r     25     White-faced Ibis    Plegadis chihi     
1.50r     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     
and     12     Horned Screamer    Anhima cornuta     

1995.05   12.10.1995   America   2v set   
Black-necked Swan Cygnus melancoryphus
84c     14     Black-necked Swan    Cygnus melancoryphus     
and     14     Coscoroba Swan    Coscoroba coscoroba     

1995.06   16.11.1995   Birds      
Saffron Finch Sicalis flaveola
15c     231     Saffron Finch    Sicalis flaveola     

1996.01   04.05.1996   Espamer 96      
Crimson Topaz Topaza pella Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi Swallow-tailed Hummingbird Eupetomena macroura
15c     86     Crimson Topaz    Topaza pella     
1.05r     86     Plovercrest    Stephanoxis lalandi     
1.15r     86     Swallow-tailed Hummingbird    Eupetomena macroura     

1997.01   09.06.1997   Missionaries   2v set   
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber
1.05r     25     Scarlet Ibis    Eudocimus ruber     
and     104     Keel-billed Toucan    Ramphastos sulfuratus     

1997.02   22.07.1997   Definitives   sa   
Blue-black Grassquit Volatinia jacarina
*     231     Blue-black Grassquit    Volatinia jacarina     

1997.03   13.10.1997   Definitives      
Fork-tailed Flycatcher Tyrannus savana
22c     119     Fork-tailed Flycatcher    Tyrannus savana     

1998.01   16.02.1998   Definitives   sa   
Social Flycatcher Myiozetetes similis
22c     119     Social Flycatcher    Myiozetetes similis     

1998.02   05.06.1998   Nature protection   2v strip   
Azure Jay Cyanocorax caeruleus
0.22r     162     Azure Jay    Cyanocorax caeruleus     

1999.01   05.03.1999   Sea resources   6v sheet   
Masked Booby Sula dactylatra
0.31r     31     Masked Booby    Sula dactylatra     

2000.01   22.04.2000   Discovery of Brazil   20v sheet   
Red-spectacled Amazon Amazona pretrei Toco Toucan Ramphastos toco Golden Parakeet Guaruba guarouba
0.45r     73     Red-spectacled Amazon    Amazona pretrei     
0.45r     104     Toco Toucan    Ramphastos toco     
0.45r     73     Golden Parakeet    Guaruba guarouba     

2000.02   16.05.2000   GERCO      
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao
0.40r     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     

2000.03   12.12.2000   Border arbitration anniversary      
Great Egret Ardea alba
0.40r     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     

2001.01   03.06.2001   WWF   Sheet   
Hyacinth Macaw Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus Golden-capped Parakeet Aratinga auricapillus Ochre-marked Parakeet Pyrrhura cruentata Yellow-faced Parrot Alipiopsitta xanthops
1.30r     73     Hyacinth Macaw    Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus     
1.30r     73     Golden-capped Parakeet    Aratinga auricapillus     
1.30r     73     Ochre-marked Parakeet    Pyrrhura cruentata     
1.30r     73     Yellow-faced Parrot    Alipiopsitta xanthops     

2001.02   20.11.2001   Pantanal   10v booklet, sa   

Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Anhinga Anhinga anhinga Cocoi Heron Ardea cocoi Jabiru Jabiru mycteria Great Egret Ardea alba Purple Gallinule Porphyrio martinicus
0.55r     25     Roseate Spoonbill    Platalea ajaja     
0.55r     33     Anhinga    Anhinga anhinga     
0.55r     26     Cocoi Heron    Ardea cocoi     
0.55r     24     Jabiru    Jabiru mycteria     
0.55r     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     
0.55r     46     Purple Gallinule    Porphyrio martinicus     

2001.03   13.12.2001   Merchant ships   2v strip   
Wandering Albatross Diomedea exulans
0.55r     17     Wandering Albatross    Diomedea exulans     

2002.01   14.07.2002   Preservation of the Caatinga Nordestina      
White-browed Guan Penelope jacucaca
1.10r     8     White-browed Guan    Penelope jacucaca     MS

2002.02   27.07.2002   SIVAM      
Blue-and-yellow Macaw Ara ararauna
1.10r     73     Blue-and-yellow Macaw    Ara ararauna     
and     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     

2002.03   02.10.2002   Mercosur      
Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus
1r     73     Red-and-green Macaw    Ara chloropterus     
and     104     Toco Toucan    Ramphastos toco     
and     26     Great Egret    Ardea alba     
and     24     Jabiru    Jabiru mycteria     

2003.01   31.10.2003   Greeting stamps   2v set   
Plovercrest Stephanoxis lalandi
0.60r     86     Plovercrest    Stephanoxis lalandi     

2004.01   20.02.2004   Guara      
Scarlet Ibis Eudocimus ruber
0.74r     25     Scarlet Ibis    Eudocimus ruber     

2004.02   05.06.2004   Preservation of mangroves and coastal habitats   5v sheet   
Roseate Spoonbill Platalea ajaja Great Kiskadee Pitangus sulphuratus Little Wood Rail Aramides mangle
1.60r     25     Roseate Spoonbill    Platalea ajaja     
1.60r     119     Great Kiskadee    Pitangus sulphuratus     
1.60r     46     Little Wood Rail    Aramides mangle     

2004.03   28.06.2004   Parintins festival: Garantido & Caprichoso   2v strip   
Scarlet Macaw Ara macao
0.74r     73     Scarlet Macaw    Ara macao     

2004.04   22.09.2004   Greeting stamp      
*     121     Blue Manakin    Chiroxiphia caudata     

2004.05   15.10.2004   Greeting stamp      
Jabiru Jabiru mycteria
*     24     Jabiru    Jabiru mycteria     

2006.01   04.09.2006   National parks (Emas)   4v set   
Greater Rhea Rhea americana
0.85r     3     Greater Rhea    Rhea americana     

2007.01   13.03.2007   Polar year   3v set   
Emperor Penguin Aptenodytes forsteri
*     16     Emperor Penguin    Aptenodytes forsteri     

2007.02   05.10.2007   Zoo animals   6v set   
Red-and-green Macaw Ara chloropterus
0.60r     73     Red-and-green Macaw    Ara chloropterus     

2008.01   16.05.2008   Serra do Japi   2v sheet   
Burnished-buff Tanager Tangara cayana
2r     231     Burnished-buff Tanager    Tangara cayana     

2008.02   10.10.2008   Mercosul      
Kaempfer's Woodpecker Celeus obrieni Mottled Owl Strix virgata
1.40r     108     Kaempfer's Woodpecker    Celeus obrieni     
1.40r     78     Mottled Owl    Strix virgata     

2009.01   05.10.2009   Colourful birds   Sheet   

Red-crested Cardinal Paroaria coronata Guianan Cock-of-the-rock Rupicola rupicola Blue-naped Chlorophonia Chlorophonia cyanea Blue Finch Porphyrospiza caerulescens Red-necked Tanager Tangara cyanocephala Scarlet-headed Blackbird Amblyramphus holosericeus
1r     230     Red-crested Cardinal    Paroaria coronata     
1r     120     Guianan Cock-of-the-rock    Rupicola rupicola     
1r     225     Blue-naped Chlorophonia    Chlorophonia cyanea     
1r     230     Blue Finch    Porphyrospiza caerulescens     
1r     231     Red-necked Tanager    Tangara cyanocephala     
1r     228     Scarlet-headed Blackbird    Amblyramphus holosericeus     

2010.01   29.06.2010   Pantanal   8v sheet   
*     73     Hyacinth Macaw    Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus     
*     24     Jabiru    Jabiru mycteria     

2011.01   06.07.2011   Tijuca national park   Sheet   
5r     231     Green-headed Tanager    Tangara seledon     
5r     86     Violet-capped Woodnymph    Thalurania glaucopis   

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