Bird stamps from Bosnia Herzegovina (Rep Srpska).

Bosnia and Herzegovina sometimes called Bosnia-Herzegovina, or simply Bosnia, is a country in Southeastern Europe, on the Balkan Peninsula.

Its capital and largest city is Sarajevo. Bordered by Croatia to the north, west and south, Serbia to the east, and Montenegro to the southeast, Bosnia and Herzegovina is almost landlocked, except for the 20 kilometres (12 miles) of coastline on the Adriatic Sea surrounding the town of Neum.

In the central and southern interior of the country the geography is mountainous, in the northwest it is moderately hilly, and the northeast is predominantly flatland. The inland is a geographically larger region and has a moderate continental climate, bookended by hot summers and cold and snowy winters. The southern tip of the country has a Mediterranean climate and plain topography.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is a region that traces permanent human settlement back to the Neolithic age. Culturally, politically and socially, the country has one of the richest histories in the region, having been first settled by the Slavic peoples that populate the area today from the 6th through to the 9th centuries AD.

They then established the first independent banate in the region, known as the Banate of Bosnia, in the early 12th century upon the arrival and convergence of peoples that would eventually come to call themselves Dobri Bošnjani ("Good Bosnians"). This evolved into the Kingdom of Bosnia in the 14th century, after which it was annexed into the Ottoman Empire, under whose rule it would remain from the mid 15th to the late 19th centuries.

The Ottomans brought Islam to the region, and altered much of the cultural and social outlook of the country. This was followed by annexation into the Austro-Hungarian Monarchy, which lasted up until World War I. Following the dissolution of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, the country proclaimed independence in 1992, which was followed by a bloody war, lasting until late 1995.

Today, the country maintains high literacy, life expectancy and education levels and is one of the most frequently-visited countries in the region.

Bosnia and Herzegovina is regionally and internationally renowned for its natural beauty and cultural heritage inherited from six historical civilizations, its cuisine, winter sports, its eclectic and unique architecture and the Sarajevo Film Festival and Sarajevo Jazz Festival, both the largest and most prominent of their kind in Southeastern Europe.

The country is home to three ethnic groups or, officially, constituent peoples, a term unique for Bosnia and Herzegovina. Bosniaks are the largest group of the three, with Serbs second and Croats third. Regardless of ethnicity, a citizen of Bosnia and Herzegovina is often identified in English as a Bosnian.

The terms Herzegovinian and Bosnian are maintained as a regional rather than ethnic distinction, and the region of Herzegovina has no precisely defined borders of its own. Moreover, the country was simply called "Bosnia" (without Herzegovina) until the Austro-Hungarian occupation at the end of the nineteenth century.

Bosnia and Herzegovina has a bicameral legislature and a three-member Presidency composed of a member of each major ethnic group. However, the central government's power is highly limited, as the country is largely decentralized and comprises two autonomous entities: the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Republika Srpska, with a third region, the Brčko District, governed under local government.

The country is a potential candidate for membership to the European Union and has been a candidate for NATO membership since April 2010, when it received a Membership Action Plan at the summit in Tallinn. Additionally, the country has been a member of the Council of Europe since April 2002 and a founding member of the Mediterranean Union upon its establishment in July 2008.

  Face value | Family number | English name | Scientific name 
1996.01   01.03.1996   Flora and fauna   4v set   
Horned Lark Eremophila alpestris
1.20d     181     Horned Lark    Eremophila alpestris     
2000.01   12.04.2000   Bridges      
Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus Yelkouan Shearwater Puffinus yelkouan Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus Western Osprey Pandion haliaetus
1m     36     Western Osprey    Pandion haliaetus     
1m     18     Yelkouan Shearwater    Puffinus yelkouan     
and     31     Northern Gannet    Morus bassanus     
and     14     Mallard    Anas platyrhynchos     
1m     36     Western Osprey    Pandion haliaetus     
1m     36     Western Osprey    Pandion haliaetus     
2000.02   06.09.2000   Olympic Games, Sydney      
Emu Dromaius novaehollandiae
2m     5     Emu    Dromaius novaehollandiae     MS
2004.01   27.08.2004   European nature protection   2v strip   
Common Rock Thrush Monticola saxatilis
1m     213     Common Rock Thrush    Monticola saxatilis     
2005.01   25.11.2005   Birds      
Corn Crake Crex crex Eurasian Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia
0.50m     46     Corn Crake    Crex crex     
1m     25     Eurasian Spoonbill    Platalea leucorodia     
2006.01   19.09.2006   Fauna   2v set   
Western Capercaillie Tetrao urogallus
0.50m     11     Western Capercaillie    Tetrao urogallus     
2008.01   01.07.2008   150 years evolution theory      
Small Tree Finch Camarhynchus parvulus
1.50m     232     Small Tree Finch    Camarhynchus parvulus     
and     232     Large Ground Finch    Geospiza magnirostris     
and     232     Medium Ground Finch    Geospiza fortis     
and     232     Green Warbler-Finch    Certhidea olivacea     
2008.02   12.08.2008   European nature protection      
White Stork Ciconia ciconia Tawny Owl Strix aluco
1m     24     White Stork    Ciconia ciconia     
1m     78     Tawny Owl    Strix aluco     
2011.01   06.04.2011   Europa      
Middle Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos medius Ural Owl Strix uralensis
1m     108     Middle Spotted Woodpecker    Dendrocopos medius     
2m     78     Ural Owl    Strix uralensis     
2011.02   06.04.2011   Europa   Booklet   2011.01

Click on thumbnail to launch image in popup
Middle Spotted Woodpecker  Dendrocopos medius Middle Spotted Woodpecker  Dendrocopos medius Middle Spotted Woodpecker  Dendrocopos medius Ural Owl  Strix uralensis Ural Owl  Strix uralensis Ural Owl  Strix uralensis
1m     108     Middle Spotted Woodpecker    Dendrocopos medius     ct
1m     108     Middle Spotted Woodpecker    Dendrocopos medius     cb
1m     108     Middle Spotted Woodpecker    Dendrocopos medius     cbr
2m     78     Ural Owl    Strix uralensis     ct
2m     78     Ural Owl    Strix uralensis     cb
2m     78     Ural Owl    Strix uralensis     ctr
2011.03   10.05.2011   Birds of Bardaca      
Common Pochard Aythya ferina Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis Mute Swan Cygnus olor Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis
0.90m     14     Common Pochard    Aythya ferina     
0.90m     92     Common Kingfisher    Alcedo atthis     
0.90m     14     Mute Swan    Cygnus olor     
0.90m     21     Black-necked Grebe    Podiceps nigricollis     
2011.04   15.09.2011   Buzzard and Goshawk      
Common Buzzard Buteo buteo Northern Goshawk Accipiter gentilis
0.90m     37     Common Buzzard    Buteo buteo     
1.50m     37     Northern Goshawk    Accipiter gentilis     
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